初二下册英语语法:知识点英语语法整理总结
来源:教务科研处 作者:里院里 发布时间 :2017-09-24 13:31:16阅读次数:【字体 |

 篇一:初二英语下册语法

英语语法
现在进行时
现在进行时的基本用法
1.表示说话时正在进行的动作
常和now 连用,有时用一个look、listen ,来表now 这一时间概念。
*Look! A train is coming .看,火车来了。
*Listen! He is playing the piano.听,他在弹琴。
2.表示现阶段正在进行的动作
但不一定是说话时正在进行。常和at present ,this week ,these days…等时间状语连用。*What lesson are you studying this week?你们本周学哪一课了?(说话时并不在学)
3.现在进行时有时可用来表示一个在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作
即是说可以用来代替将来时,但此时,一般要与表示将来时的时间状语连用,而且仅限于少量动词。如:go, come, leave, start, arrive, return . sleep
*Are you going to Tianjin tomorrow? 你明天去天津吗?
* many of you are coming to the party next week? 你们有多少人下周要来参加晚会?
三、一般将来时
█一般将来时
1.be going to+ 动词原形~
对于将要发生的事,或打算、计划、决定要做的事情时,皆以be going to + 动词原形的句型来表示。
因此此句型有be动词,所以是否用am, is, are ,决定于主语。
1.肯定句:主语+be (is, am, are) going to +动词原形
going to play football next Sunday.
下周日我打算踢足球。
◇He is going to travel around the world. 他计划周游世界。
◇They are going to meet outside the school gate. 他们打算在校门口见面。
◇It is going to rain. 要下雨了。
2.否定句:主语+be (am, are, is) not going to +动词原形
not going to have any classes next week. 下周我们不上课。
◇I’m not going to be a teacher. 我不打算当老师。
◇He isn’t going to see his brother tomorrow. 他明天不准备去看他哥哥。
3.疑问句:Be (Am, Is, Are) +主语+ going to + 动词原形
◇Are you going to be a doctor when you grow up? 你长大了,打算当一名医生吗? , I am. 是的,我打算当。
No, I’m not. 不,我不打算当。
will 同be going to 的用法相同
以今天为起点的所有将来时间,如:
this afternoon / this evening = tonight / tomorrow/
tomorrow morning / afternoon / evening ,
the day after tomorrow / next week ,
next Wednesday / next month,
next September / next year.
★ ―be going to + 动词原形‖ 表示计划、打算、将来发生的动作,常和this afternoon (今天下午),this evening = tonight (今晚),tomorrow (明天),tomorrow morning (afternoon ,
evening ) (明早,午,晚),the day after tomorrow(后天),next Sunday (下个星期天), next week (下周), next month (下个月), next year (明年)等的时间状语连用,前不加任何介词。另外,动作性动词go ,come 和leave 等的现在进行时表示一般将来时动作。
四、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级
1.比较级:句子表示两者之间的比较时用比较级,其标志词是than, much, a little , even和still等。
e.g. ① Her hair is much longer than mine. 她的头发比我的长多了。
② I’m a little older than you. 我比你大一点儿。
2.:句子表示三者或多者的比较时用最高级,其标志词是表示范围的in…或of …词短语。在句子中,形容词最高级前必须加the。
e.g. ① The boy is the tallest in our class. 这个男孩是我们班最高的。
② is the biggest, the sun, the moon or the earth?
★形容词的比较级和最高级:
形容词有三种等级:原级、比较级、最高级。
3.原级:句中只有一者时用原级,其标志词是very, so, too, quite等。
e.g. His handwriting is very good.他的书法很好。 (一个人不作比较。)★ 形容词比较级和最高级的构成:
1.一般在原级后加er 构成比较级,加est构成最高级。
e.g. small smallersmallest
young younger youngest
2.以不发音的字母e 结尾的形容词,直接加r 或st 构成比较级和最高级。
e.g. nice nicernicest
late laterlatest
3.以+y 结尾的形容词,变y为i ,再加er 或est, 构成比较级和最高级。 e.g. busy busierbusiest
heavy heavier heaviest
4.在中,末尾只有一个辅音字母的形容词,要先双写这个辅音字母,再加er或est, 构成比较级和最高级。
e.g. hot hotterhottest
big biggerbiggest
5.个别形容词的比较级和最高级是不规则变化,需个别记忆。
e.g. good (well)betterbest
bad (badly, ill) worseworst
many (much) more most
little less least
farfartherfarthest
或 further furthest
★ 副词的比较级和最高级:
1.以ly 结尾的副词,除early 变为 earlier 和 earliest 外, 其余一律在其前加more 和most。 如:carefully – more carefully – most carefully
2.规则变化直接加er 和 est 。 如:fast – faster—fastest
3.个别词是不规则变化,需要特别记忆。
4.句子中,副词最高级前的the 可省略也可以不省略,但形容词最高级前面的the 绝对不能去掉。
e.g. Who runs (the) fastest, , Jim or ?
五、提建议的表达方法、表示需要、询问方向、指点方向
★ 表示建议的基本句型
1. Shall I / we + 动词原形?
2. Why don’t you + 动词原形 = Why not + 动词原形
3. Let’s + 动词原形
4. What/ How about + doing sth.
★ 表示需要的基本句型
1.表示需要用need。 它可当和行为动词用。
e.g. ① We need your help.()
我们需要你的帮助。
② They need finish reading the book today. (情态动词)
他们需要今天看完。
2.询问方向,主要有以下几种:
⑴ Is there a bus station near here? 附近有汽车站吗?
⑵ Where is the nearest bus stop / station? 最近的汽车站在哪里?
⑶ Which is the way to the bus station ? 去汽车站的路是那一条?
⑷ How can I go to the bus station? 如何去公共汽车站?
3.指点方向,主要有以下几种表达方式:
⑴ Go / walk along the road / street. 沿着这条路/街走。
⑵ Take the first (second…) turning on the right / left.在第一(二……)个路口向右/左转。⑶ It’s next to (in front of , behind…) 它在……旁边(前面,后面……)
⑷ It’s about a hundred metres along on the left. 它在左前方大约一百米处。
⑸ Turn right / left. = turn to the right / left. 向右/左拐。
六、一般过去时
◆一般过去时主要表示过去的动作或状态。在句子中由主语+动词的过去式来表达。
1.He walks to school. ()
2.He walked to school.(一般过去时)
例如:
例1.中的动词walks时现在式, 由于主语是单数he, 因此原因的walk必须加上 ―s‖,表示目前习惯性、经常性动作。可译为―他现在经常步行上学‖。
例2.中的动词walked是过去式,过去式是叙述过去事情的动词形式,所以这句话时表示的是过去的某时,例如昨天、上周或学生时代等过去的某一时间,这句可译为―他曾经步行上学‖。
◆be 动词的过去式
be 动词的过去时的句型如下:
肯定句: 主语 +be动词的过去式(was, were)~
否定句: 主语 + be动词的过去式(was, were)+ not ~
疑问句: be动词的过去式(was, were)+ 主语 ~?
○He was busy yesterday. (肯定句) 他昨天很忙。
○He was not busy yesterday. (否定句) 他昨天不忙。
○Was he busy yesterday? (疑问句) 他昨天忙吗?
1.be动词过去时的肯定句
Mike was in the United States last year. 麦克去年在美国。
比较be 动词的现在式和过去式:
There is (are ) 的句型用于一般过去时需把is ,are 变为它们的过去式:There was (were) …
2.be动词过去式的否定句
He was not in Canada last year.
他去年不在加拿大。
be动词过去时的否定句的结构和现在时一样,只要在be动词过去式(was, were)后面加上not就可以了。否定式的was not , were not 大多使用缩写形式wasn’t 和 weren’t . ○I wasn’t busy the other day.
前几天我不忙。
3.be动词的过去时的疑问句(一般疑问句/特殊疑问句)
Was it raining in Beijing yesterday?
No, it wasn’t . I t was cloudy.
昨天吗?不,没下雨。昨天北京阴天。
be 动词过去时的结构和一般现在时一样,只要把be 动词的过去式was, were 调到主语前面即可。 was (were ) + 主语 ~? 回答时,需要用Yes, … was (were) .或 No… wasn’t (weren’t)
○Was your father free this morning? 今天上午你爸爸有空吗?
Yes, he was . 是的,他有空。
No, he wasn’t .不,他没空。
◆一般动词的过去时
一般动词过去式的基本句型如下:
肯定句: 主语+ 动词的过去式~
否定句: 主语+ did not + 动词原形~
疑问句: Did + 主语 + 动词原形~?
○He played tennis last week. (肯定句) 他上周打网球了。
○He did not play tennis last week. (否定句) 上周他没打网球。
○Did he play tennis last week?(疑问句) 上周他打网球了吗?
1.一般动词过去式的肯定句
We had a good time yesterday.
昨天我们过得很愉快。
He had a good time yesterday.
昨天他过得很高兴。
一般过去时没有人称和数的变化。因此,主语即使是单数、第三人称,也和其他人称一样变
化。
○I watched TV for an hour.
我看了一个小时的电视。
○She studied Russian two years ago.
两年前他学俄语。
2.一般动词过去时的否定句
We did not have a good time yesterday.
昨天我们过得不好。
一般动词过去时的否定句的结构和一般现在时够定句的结构一样, 不论主语是第几人称,还是单、复数,在主语后面加上did not (而不是do not ,或 does not)就可以了。
否定式did not 常用缩写形式didn’t 。
○He didn’t have classes this morning.
今天上午他没课.
○ didn’t do your best to do it.
你没有尽力去做。
3.一般动词过去时的疑问句
Did he go there?
他去那了吗?
Yes, he did. (No, he didn’t .) 是的,他去了。 (不,他没去。)
When did you get up this morning? At six.
今天早晨你几点钟起床的?六点钟。
一般动词过去时一般疑问句的结构和一般现在时一般疑问句的结构一样,无论主语是第几人称,单数、复数,在主语前面加上did即可。
○Did Tom go with you?
汤姆和你一起去的吗?
Yes, he did . (No, he didn’t .)
是的。(不,不是的)
篇二:最新人教版八年级英语下册各单元语法点汇总
Unit 1 What’s the matter?
一、 询问某人的健康问运及遭到麻烦的表达方法
(1)询问某人患了何种疾病或遇到了何种麻烦时,常用以下几种结构来表达:
What’s the matter (with sb.)?(某人)怎么了?
What’s wrong (with sb.)?(某人)怎么了?
What’s the trouble (with sb.)?(某人)出什么事了?
What happened (to sb.)?(某人)发生了什么事?
Are you OK?你没事吧?
Is there anything wrong with sb.?某人有什么事吗?
(2)要表达身体疼痛或不舒服,可用以下结构:
①某人+have/has+病症.
The twins have colds.双胞胎感冒了。
?某人+have/has+a+headache/toothache/stomachache/backache/earache.
She had a stomachache last night.她昨晚肚子痛。
③某人+have/has+a+sore+发病部位. He has a sore throat.他喉咙痛。
④某人+hurt(s)+身体部位或反身代词. He hurt his leg.他的腿受伤了。
⑤某部位+hurt(s).
My head hurts badly.我头痛得厉害。
⑥某人+have/has+a pain+in one’s+身体部位, I have a pain in my chest.我胸口痛。
⑦(There is)something wrong with one’s+身体部位.
There is something wrong with my right eye..我的右眼有毛病。
⑧其他表达方式
She has a heart trouble.她有心脏病。
He got hit on the head他头部受到了撞击。
She cut her finger.她割破手指了。
二 情态动词should的用法
1.Should为情态动词,意为“应该;应当”,否定式为shouldn’t,其后接动词原形,无人称和数的变化。常用来表示征询意见、建议、劝告、要求或义务等。 You should drink hot water with honey.你应该喝加有蜂蜜的开水。 He should put his head back他应该把头后仰。
We should try our best to help him.我们应当尽力去帮助他。 You shouldn‘t watch TV.你不应该看电视。
2.Should用于主语为第一人称的疑问句,表示征询意见。 Should I put some medicine on it?我应当给它敷上药吗? Should we tell her about it?我们应该告诉她这件事吗?
【拓展】在英语中,表示建议的说法有很多,而且都是中考考查的重点。主要结构有:
①Would you like (to do) sth.?你想要/愿意(做)某事吗?
Would you like to play basketball with me?你想要和我一起打篮球吗?
②Shall I/we do sth ?我/我们做??好吗?
Shall we go to the zoo tomorrow?明天我们去动物园,好吗?
③Why not do sth ?为什么不??呢?
Why not join us?为什么不加入到我们当中来呢?
④How/What about doing sth ?做某事怎么样?How about going swimming?去游泳怎么样?
⑤Let’s do sth让我们做??吧。Let’s go home.咱们回家吧。
⑥You’d better (not) do sth你最好(不)要做某事。
You’d better not go there alone.你最好不要一个人去那儿。
Unit 2 I'll help clean up the city parks
动词不定式
A. 作主语——为避免句子的头重脚轻,常用it作为形式主语,而真正的主语动词不定式后置。 常用句型:
It +be+adj./n.+(for/of sb.) to do sth./It takes sb. some time to do sth.
B. 作宾语——动词want, decide, hope, ask, agree, choose, learn, plan, need, teach, prepare?常接动词不定式作宾语。
C. 作(后置)定语——常用于“have/has+sth.+to do”或“enough+名+to do”“It’s time to do sth.”等结构中。
D. 作宾语补足语——tell, ask, want, invite, teach, like, call等可接带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语,构成tell/ask/want /call/invite sb. to do sth.结构。
【注意】动词不定式作使役动词和感官动词的宾语补足语时应省去to:“一感(feel),二听(listen to, hear),三让(let, make, have,,四看(look at, see, watch, notice),半帮助(help)”。
E. 动词不定式作状语
主要用来修饰动词,表示目的,结果或原因。为了强调目的,有时可以把动词不定式放在句首,或在不定式前加in order (to) 或so as (to) “为了,目的是”。常用结构有too + adj./adv. + to do sth.等。
F. 固定句式中动词不定式的用法 常见的形式有:
had better (not) do sth./Would you like to do sth.?/Why not do sth.?/Would you please (not) do sth.?等。
Unit 3 Could you please clean your room
Could you please...?句型
(1)请求别人时通常用此句型,也可以说:Can you...please?情态动词could或can在这里均表示请求,在意思上无区别,但是用could在于其上显得更委婉、客气、诚恳。在日常生活中常使用could you/I...?若在句末加上please,则显得更礼貌。
Could you help me find my book,please?你能帮我找到我的书吗?
(2)对could you/I...?的问句作出肯定回答,常用“sure/certainly/of course”等;如果作否定回答,常用“sorry或oh,please don’t”。 一般不用no开头,用no显得语气生硬、不礼貌。
(3)表示请求的句式:
Would you like to do...?Would you mind doing...?Let’s do....Shall I/we do...?
Please do...(祈使句前加please)
提示:could you please...与could I Please...两种问句,前者是请求别人帮忙的句式,后者是有礼貌地向别人请求允许的交际用语。试比较:
Could you please help me?请你帮我一下好吗?
Could I please invite my friends to my birthday party,Mom? 妈妈, 我能邀请我的朋友参加我的生日聚会吗?
Unit 4 Why don't you talk to your parents?
1.提建议向别人发出邀请,请求,建议,或征求某人的意见的其他表达方式:How /what about doing sth.?(about是个介词,可跟名词或动名词)“?怎么样?”
You’d better (not) do something.“你最好(不)做某事”
Would you like sth ??:“你想要某物Let?s do sth??
What should I do ?? ( should表示请求、征询对方意见)
2.学会谈论问题和学会用why don't you?提建议向别人发出邀请,请求,建议,或征求某人的意见的表达方式: Why don?t you do something? =Why not do something? 你为什么不做某事呢? 来表示请求、征询对方意见
3.until, so that ,although引导的状语从句:
1)until:在带有till或until引导的时间状语从句里,如果主句用肯定式,其含义是“一直到??时”,谓语动词只能用延续性动词。如果主句用否定式,其含义是“直到??才??”, “在??以前不??”, 谓语动词可用瞬间动词。Don?t get off until the bus stops.
2)so that引导目的状语从句(为了,以便)例如:He studies hard so that he could work better in the future
3)although的用法意思相当于though(尽管,虽然),引导让步状语从句。引导的从句不能与并列连词but,and, so等连用,但可以和yet, still等词连用。 例如:Although he was tired, he went on working.尽管他很累,但是他继续工作。
Unit 5 What were you doing when the rainstorm came?
过去进行时
1. 基本概念:过去进行时表示在过去某一时刻或一段时间内正在进行的
动作。这一特定的过去时间除有上下文暗示以外, 一般用时间状语来表示。
2. 结构 was / were ( not ) + 动词-ing
3. 句式
肯定式:
I/He/She/It was working. We/You/They/ were working.
否定式:
I/He/She/It was not working.
We/You/They/ were not working.
疑问式和简略回答:
Was I working? Yes, you were. No, you were not. Were you working? Yes, I was. No, I was not. Was he/she/it working? Yes, he/she/it was. No, he/she/it was not. Were we/you/they working? Yes, you/we/they were. No, you/we/they were not. 注:
1) was not常缩略为wasn’t; were not常缩略为weren’t。
2) 一般过去时与过去进行时用法的比较: 一般过去时表示在过去某个时间发生过的动作或存在的状态, 而过去进行时则表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作。 例如:
David wrote a letter to his friend last night. 大卫昨晚给他的朋友写了封信。(信写完了。)
David was writing a letter to his friend last night. 大卫昨晚一直在给他的朋友写信。(信不一定写完。)
4.过去进行时中的when和while
when, while 区别:
1) 由when引导的时间状语从句,主句用过去进行时,从句应用一般过去时; 由while引导的时间状语从句,主句用一般过去时,从句应用过去进行时。
When the teacher came in, we were talking.
当此句改变主从句的位置时,则为: While we were talking, the teacher came in.
2)如果从句和主句的动作同时发生,两句都用过去进行时的时候,多用while引导。如:
They were singing while we were dancing.
Unit 6 An old man tried to move the mountains
1. unless引导条件状语从句
unless = if ? not ―除非,若不
They will go tomorrow unless it rains.
= They will go tomorrow if it doesn’t rains.
2. as soon as引导时间状语从句。 ―??就
He will come and see you as soon as he can.
3. so.......that引导结果状语从句
句型1:主语+谓语+so+形容词/副词+that从句
The wind was so strong that we could hardly move forward.
句型2: so +形容词 + a/an + 单数名词 + that从句
It was so hot a day that they all went swimming.
句型3. so + many/ few + 复数名词 + that从句
He has so few friends that he often feels lonely.
句型4: so +much/ little + 不可数名词 + that 从句
I had so little money that I couldn’t buy a pen.
Unit 7 What’s the highest mountain in the world?
形容词副词的原级、比较级和最高级
(一)原级句型:
1. A is as+原级+ as+ B 表示A 与B一样?eg: He is as tall as me.
2.A is not as/so +原级+ as B表示A不如B?eg:He is not as tall as me.
3.只能修饰原级的词,very,quite,so,too,so, enough, pretty等
例如,He is too tired to walk on.他太累了以至于不能再继续走了。
(二)比较级句型
可以修饰比较级的词,much,a lot,far,?的多a little,a bit,?一点儿 even甚至,still仍然
Eg. Lesson One is much easier than Lesson Two.第一课比第二课容易得多。
Tom looks even younger than before.汤姆甚至比以前更年轻。
1.当句中有than 时则用比较级。 eg: He is fatter than me.
2.当句子中的比较对象为两者时用比较级:“特殊疑问词+be+形容词比较级,A or B?”
eg: Which is bigger,the earth or the moon?哪一个大,地球还是月球?
3. “比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越??”。
eg.The flowers are more and more beautiful.花儿越来越漂亮。
加more构成比较级的形容词则用more and more +形容词表示越来越?
eg: English is more and more important.
4. “the+比较级,the+比较级”表示“越??,越??”。
Eg. The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you’ll make.
5.“A+be+the+形容词比较级+of the two+??”表示“A是两者中较??的”。
Eg.Look at the two boys. My brother is the taller of the two.
6.A+be+形容词比较级+than+any other+单数名词(+介词短语)”表示“A比同一范围的任何一个人/物都??”,含义是“A最??”。
Eg. The Yangtze River is longer than any other river in China.
=The Yangtze River is the longest river in China.
(三)最高级常用句型结构
1.“主语+be+the+形容词最高级+单数名词+in/of短语”表示“??是??中最??的”。
eg:Tom is the tallest in his class./of all the students.
This apple is the biggest of the five.
2.“主语+be+one of the+形容词最高级+复数名词+in/of短语”表示“??是??中最??之一”。
Eg:Beijing is one of the largest cities in China.
3.“特殊疑问词+be+the+最高级+A,B,or C?”用于三者以上
eg Which is the biggest? The moon,the sun or ths earth?
4.“the +序数词+最高级+单数名词+范围”。表示?是第几大(?)
eg: The Yellow River is the second longest river in China .
【注意】形容词最高级之前要加the,但当最高级之前有形容词性物主代词或名词所有格时则不用加the
eg: He is the best student in my class. He is my best friend.
(四)形容词副词的规则与不规则变化
规则变化
1.一般在词尾直接加er或est,例如,tall-taller-tallest,long-longer-longest
2.以不发音的字母e结尾的单词在词尾直接加r或st,例如,nice-nicer-nicest
3.以辅音字母+y结尾的词,把y变为i,再加er或est,例如,
heavy-heavier-heaviest
4.重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母,再加er或est,
eg. big-bigger-biggest
5.部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加more构成比较级和most构成最高级,例如,
slowly-more slowly-most slowly;beautiful- more beautiful-most beautiful
不规则变化
Unit 8 Have you read Treasure Island yet?
Unit 9 Have you ever been to a museum? 现在完成时 (Present Perfect Tense)
(1)表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。
—It’s so dark. 太黑了。
—Someone has turned off the light. 有人把灯关上了。
(2)表示从过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在的动作或状态。
常与since+过去的时间点,for+一段时间,since+时间段+ego, so far等时间状语连用。
Eg. I have lived here for ten years.我已经住在这里10年了。(从10年前开始,持续到现在还住这儿)
Eg. I have lived here since 2003. 自从2003年我就住在这儿。(从2003年开始,持续到现在还住这儿)
(3) 基本结构及句型转换:主语+have/has+过去分词(done) (当主语是第三人称单数has,其余人称用have。)①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他 I have finished my homework. (肯定句)
②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他I have not finished my homework. (否定句)
③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他
—Have you finished your homework?
—Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t, (一般疑问句及肯定、否定回答)
(4)has gone (to), has been (to), has been (in) 的区别
Have/Has gone(to) :去了(现在不在说话现场)
Eg. ---Where is your father?
---He has gone to Shanghai.
Have/Has been (to) :去过(已不在去过的地方)
Eg. My father has been to Shanghai.
Have/has been in:呆了多久(还在所呆的地方)
Eg. My father has been in Shanghai for two months. =My father has been in Shanghai since two months ago.
(5)现在完成时的标志:
①常与just, already, yet, ever, never, before, so far 等连用,强调动作的完成,不强调动作的持续。
Have you ever been to Japan? I have just finished my homework.
②for + 时间段;since + 过去的时间点;since + 段时间 ago;since + 一般过去时的句子。
They have known each other for five years. Since he was a child, he has lived in England.
(6)动词过去式和过去分词的变化
规则变化: 1. 一般在动词词尾直接加ed。如:
pick → picked → picked; wish → wished → wished; stay → stayed → stayed
2. 以不发音的e结尾的动词后面加d。如:like → liked → liked; hope → hoped → hoped; phone → phoned → phoned
3. 以―辅音字母 + y‖结尾的动词,变y为i,再加-ed。如:
study → studied → studied; hurry → hurried → hurried; reply → replied → replied
4. 词尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节动词,要双写辅音字母,再加-ed。如:
stop → stopped → stopped; clap → clapped → clapped
不规则变化:
5. 以不变应万变。如:let → let → let; put → put → put; read → read → read
篇三:人教版初二英语语法
人教版初二英语语法【重点讲解】
初二(上)
1. on the street / in the street
表示“在街上”时,on the street 和 in the street 都可以,在美国多用on the street, 在英国多用in the street. 例如:We have a house in the street. 我们在街上有座房子。I met him on the street. 我在街上遇见了他。
2. would like / like
would like 和 like含义不同。like 意思是“喜欢”,“爱好”,而 would like 意思是“想要”。试比较: I like beer.=I’m fond of beer. 我喜欢喝啤酒。I’d like a glass of beer= I want a glass of beer. 我想要一杯啤酒。Do you like going to the cinema? 你喜欢看电影吗?Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? 你今晚想去看电影吗?
3. another / the other
(1)another 通常用于三个或三个以上或不确定数量中的任意一个人或 物体。 例如:
May I have another apple, please? 请在给我一个苹果好吗?
This coat is too small for me. Please show me another这件外套我穿太小,请再给我拿一件看看。
(2)the other 通常指两者中的另一个。例如:
He has two rulers. One is short. The other is long. 他有两把尺子,一把短的,另一把长的。 I have two brothers. One works in Xi’an . The other works in Beijing. 我有两个兄弟,一个在西安工作,另一个在北京工作。
4. have to /must
(1)have to和 must 都可以用来谈论义务,但用法略有不同。如果某人主观上觉得必须去做而又想去时,常用must。如果谈论某种来自“外界”的义务,常用have to。例如:I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟。(自己想戒烟)They have to work for the boss.他们不得不为那个老板工作。(条件逼得他们去工作)
(2)have to 可用于多种时态,must 只能用于一般现在时。例如:
I’ll have to get up early tomorrow morning.明天早晨我必须早早起床。We had to work long hours every day in order to get more money.为了多挣钱,我们不得不每天长时间地工作。
(3)用于否定句时,mustn’t意思是“决不能”,“禁止”,而don’t have to意思是“不必”,相当于needn’t。例如:You mustn’t be late again next time.下一次你决不能再迟到。You don’t have to go there today. You can go there tomorrow.你今天不必到那里去了。你可以明天去。
5. hear sb. or sth.doing sth. / herar sb. or sth. do sth.
hear sb. or sth.doing sth.意思是“听到某人或某物在做某事”,而hear sb. or sth. do sth.意思“听到某人或某物做过某事”。试比较:I hear him singing an English song.听见他在唱英歌曲。
I heard him sing an English song.我听见他唱一首英文歌。
类似hear 这种用法的还有see, watch, listen, feel等感官动词。
6. any /some
any和some 都可以同不可数名词和可数名词的复数形式连用,但some一般用在肯定句中;any用在疑问句和否定句中。试比较:I want some money. 我想要点钱。Have you any money? 你有钱吗?I don’t have any money. 我一点钱也没有。
some 有时也用于疑问句,表示说话人期待一个肯定回答或鼓励人家说“是”。例如:
Would you like some more beer?请你再来点啤酒好吗?
Could I have some rice, please?请给我来点米饭好吗?
7. hear /listen to
listen to 和hear 都有“听”的意思,但含义有所不同。Listen to强调“听”的动作,hear 强
调“听”的结果。例如:Listen to me ,please! I’m going to tell you a story. 请听我说!我给
你们讲个故事。
Listen! Can you hear someone crying in the next room? 听!你能听见有人在隔壁房间里哭吗?
I listened, but heard nothing.我听了听,但什么也听不见。
hear 后面如果接宾语从句,常常表示“听说”。例如:
I hear some foreign students will visit our school.我听说一些外国学生将要访问我们学校。
I hear there is going to be a film in our school this evening.我听说今晚我们学校要演一场电影。
8. Let’s… /Let us…
Let’s? 和Let us? 都表示“让我们??”, 如果us 包括听话人在内,其含义相同,附带
问句用shall we. 如果us 不包括听话人在内,其含义不同,Let us?的附带问句要用will you。
例如:Let’s go shopping, shall we? 我们去购物好吗?
9. take/ bring/ carry /get
这四个动词都有“拿”和“带”的意思,但含义有所不同。take意为“带走”,“拿走”,bring
意为“带来”,“拿来”, get表示“到别的地方把某人或某物带来或拿来”,carry不强调方向,
带有负重的意思。试比较:
My parents often take me there on holidays.我父母常常带我到那里去度假。
I’m going to take you to Beijing.我准备带你去北京。Bring me a cup of tea, please.请给我端杯
茶来。
I’ll bring the book to you tomorrow.明天我把那本书给你带来。The waiter carried the me to the
table服务员把肉送到桌上。The monkey carried the bag on her back.猴子把那个包背在背上。
She went back to get her handbag.他折回去拿他的手提包。Let me get the doctor.让我去请医生
吧。
10. far away /faraway
(1)far away是一个副词短语,意思是“很远”。例如:Some are far away. Some are nearer.有些
离得很远,有些离得近一些的。The village is far away from here.那个村子离这儿很远。
(2)faraway是一个形容词,意思是“遥远的”,可以在句中作定语。例如:
He lives in faraway mountain village.他住在一个遥远的小山村。
11. find / look for
find和look for 都有“找”的意思,但含义不同。find 强调“找”的结果,而look for 强调
“找”的过程。请看下列例句:He is looking for his bike.他在找他的自行车。I’m looking for
my watch, but can’t find it.我在找我的手表,但是找不到。I hope you will soon find your lost
ring.希望你尽快找到丢失的戒指。
另外,find还有“发现”;“感到”等意思。例如:I found a wallet in the desk.我在课桌里发现
了一个钱包。
I find this book very interesting.我觉得这本书很有意思。
12. in front of /in the front of
In front of 表示在某物的前面,不在某物的范围内。In the front of 表示在某物的前部,在某
物的范围内。试比较:My seat is in front of Mary’s.我的座位在玛丽座位的前面。
He is sitting in the front of the car with the driver.他和司机坐在小车的前部。
【考点扫描】
1. be going to的用法;
2. 形容词的比较级、最高级;
3. 形容词和副词的比较
4. 一般过去时
5. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;
6. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。
【中考范例】
1. (2004年烟台市中考试题)
In the exam, the ________ you are, the ________ mistakes you’ll make.
A. carefully, little B. more carefully, fewest C. more careful, fewer D. more careful, less
【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是形容词和副词的比较以及他们的比较等级的用法。第一个空应填形容词careful的比较级,因为它在句中作表语,第二个空应填few的比较级,因为它修饰的是复数可数名词。
2. (2004年河北省中考试题)
Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.
A. so careful B. as carefully as C. carefully D. as careful as
【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是形容词和副词的用法比较。该空应填副词,因为它修饰的是动词does。该题用的是not as+副词+as的结构,所以答案应是B。
3. (2004年重庆市中考试题)
That day I saw some parents _________ at the back of the classroom, ________ to the teacher.
A. sitting, listenedB. sat, listened C. sitting, listeningD. sat, listening
【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是see sb. doing sth.的句型结构和分词作状语的用法。第一个空stting在句中作saw的宾语补足语,第二个空listening做伴随状语。
4. (2004年杭州市中考试题)
You ________ open the door before the train gets into the station.
A. don’t have to B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. may not
【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是几个情态动词否定式的用法区别。don’t have to和needn’t的意思都是“不必”,may not的意思是“可以不”,只有mustn’t表示“不许”,“禁止”
初二(中)
1. above/ over/ on
这三个介词都表示“在??之上”,但含义不同。on指在某物的表面上,和某物接触;above指在某物的上方,不和某物接触,但也不一定在某物的正上方;over指在某物的正上方,不和某物接触。试比较:There is a book on the desk.课桌上有一本书。
I raise my right hand above my head. 我把右手高举过头。
There is a stone bridge over the river. 河面上有座石桥。
2. forget to do sth./forget doing sth.
forget to do sth.意思是“忘记做某事”,实际上还没做;forget doing sth,意思是“忘记做过某事”,实际上已经做过了。试比较:I forgot to tell him the news.我忘记告诉他这条消息了。 I forgot telling him the news.我已经把这条消息告诉他了,我却忘了。
类似的词还有:remember, regret等。
3. hope/wish
hope和wish 在汉语中都有“希望”的意思,但其含义和用法有所不同。主要区别如下:
(1)wish可以用来表示不可实现的愿望;hope只能用来表示可能实现的愿望。例如: I wish I were 20 years younger.我但愿自己能年轻二十岁。
I hope you’ll be better soon. 我希望你能很快好起来。
I wish the weather wasn’t so cold. 但愿天气不这麽冷。
I hope he will come, too. 我希望他也能来。
(2)wish可以接sb. to do sth. 的结构,而hope不可以。例如:
Do you wish me to come back later? 你是否希望我再来?
4. be sure to do sth./ be sure of/about sb. or sth.
(1)be sure to do sth.可以用来表示说话人给对方提出要求,意思是“务必”,也可以用来表示说话人做出的推断,意思是“一定”,“肯定”。例如:
Be sure to lock the door when you leave.你离开时务必把门锁好。
It’s a good film. You are sure to enjoy it.这是一部好电影,你肯定会喜欢的。
(2)be sure of/about sb.or sth. 可用来表示“某人对某事有把握”。例如:
I’m sure of his success.我相信他会成功。
I think it was three years ago, but I’m not sure about it.我想那是三年前的事情,但我没有把握。
5. hear from/hear of
hear意思是“听到”,从哪里听到要用from来表示。例如:
I’ve heard from Xiao Wu that we’ll start out military training tomorrow.我听小吴说,我们明天开始军训。Listen to the tape and write out what you hear from Han Mei.听录音,并写出你从韩梅那里听到的内容。
hear from还有一个意思是“收到某人的来信”(=receive a letter from sb.)。例如: I heard from my pen friend in the U.S.A. last month. 上个月我受到了美国笔友的来信。 I heard from her last week. 我上周接到了她的来信。
hear of和和hear from含义不同。hear of 意思是“听说”,“得知”(某事或某人的存在),常用在疑问句和否定句里。例如:Who is he? I’ve never heard of him.他是谁?我从来没有听说过他。I never heard of such a thing! 这样的事我从来没有听说过。
6. It’s a pleasure./With pleasure.
It’s a pleasure这句话常用作别人向你表示致谢时的答语,意思是“那是我乐意做的”。例如: ---Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你地帮助。---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。 ---Thanks a lot. Bye.非常感谢。 再见。---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。再见。 类似的话还有 “Not at all.” “You are welcome.” “That’s all right.”
With pleasure也用作客气的答语,主要用在别人要你做某事,而你又非常愿意去做的场合。例如:---Will you please pass me the newspaper, please?请你把报纸递给我好吗?
---With pleasure.当然可以。
7. seem/look
(1)二者都可以作“看起来”讲,但seem暗示凭借一些迹象作出的有根据的判断,这种判断往往接近事实;look着重强调由视觉得出的印象。两者都可跟(to be)+形容词和as if从句。如:He seems / looks (to be) very happy today. 他今天看起来很高兴。
It looks (seems) as if it it is going to rain. 好像要下雨了。
(2)但下列情况中只用seem不用look:
1)后跟不定式to do时。如:He seems to know the answer. 他似乎知道答案。
2)在It seems that ...结构中。如:It seems that he is happier now than yesterday.他像比昨天高兴些了。
8. be ready to do/be ready for/ get ready to do/get ready for
(1)be ready to do和be ready for?表示“已作好?的准备”,强调状态
(2)get ready to do和get ready for?表示“为?做准备”,强调行为。如:
I'm ready to do anything you want me to do. 我愿意/随时准备做一切做你要我做的事。 I'm ready for any questions you may ask.我愿意/随时准备回答你可能问的问题。
He's getting ready to leave for Tokyo.他正准备动身去东京。
Let's get ready for the hard moment.我们为这一艰难时刻作好准备吧。
(3)be ready to do 通常可理解“乐于做某事”,即思想上总是有做某事的准备。be not ready to do表示“不轻易做某事”。如:He's usually not ready to listen to others.他通常不轻易听从别人。
9. at table/at the table
at table在吃饭,at the table在桌子旁边。例如:The Greens are at table. 格林一家人在吃饭。 Mr. Black is sitting at the table and reading a book.布莱克先生坐在桌旁读书。
10. reach, arrive/get to
三者都有"到达"之意。reach是及物动词,后直接加名词,get和arrive是不及物动词,不能直接加名词,须借助于介词。get to后加名词地点,若跟副词地点时,to去掉;arrive at +小地方,arrive in+大地方。如:
Lucy got to the zoo before 8 o'clock. 露西8点前到了动物园。
When did your parents arrive in Shanghai? 你父母何时到上海的?
It was late when I got home. 我到家时天色已晚。
11. sick/ill
二者都是形容词。当“生病的,患病“之意时,ill只作表语,不作定语;而sick既可作表语也可作定语。sick有"呕吐,恶心"的意思,只能作表语,而ill无此意。如:
Li Lei was ill last week. (只作表语)李磊上周生病了。He's a sick man. (作定语)他是病人。不能说成:He's an ill man.My grandfather was sick for a month last year. (作表语)我祖父去年病了一个月。
12. in time/on time
in time是"及时"的意思,on time是"准时,按时"。如:I didn't get to the bus stop in time. 我没有及时赶上汽车。We'll finish our job on time. 我们要按时完成任务。
13. may be/maybe
It may be in your inside pocket. = Maybe it is in your inside pocket. 也许在你里边的口袋里。第一句中may be是情态动词+be 动词构成的谓语部分,意思是"也许是","可能是";第二句中的maybe是副词,意思是"可能",常位于句首,不能位于句中,相当于另一副词 perhaps。再如:Maybe you put it in that bag.也许你放在了那只包里。(不能说You maybe put it
in that bag.)It may be a hat.那可能是顶帽子。(不能说It maybe a hat. 或It maybe is a hat.)
14. noise/ voice/ sound
noise 指嘈杂声,噪音大的吵杂声。voice是指说话的声音,嗓音,嗓子。sound是指耳朵能够听到的声音、闹声等。它是表示声音之意的最普通的字。有时还用作科学上的声音。例如: Don't make so much noise! 别那么大声喧哗!
I didn't recognize John's voice on the telephone. 在电话里我听不出约翰的声音。
He spoke in a low voice. 他低声说话。We heard a strange sound. 我们听到了一种奇怪的声音。 Sound travels fast, but light travels faster. 声音传得快,但是光传得更快。
【考点扫描】
中考考点在本单元主要集中在:
1. 一般过去时;
2. 反意疑问句的用法;
3. 一般将来时;
4. 感叹句;




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